Quest for the Ultimate Super-Macro Field Zoom
If you’re unfamiliar with reverse-macro shooting, click on the above link first. If you’re familiar with this genre already, then I encourage you to read on.
As a hiking nature photographer, I have always been on a quest to find, “The Single Best Lens for the Macro/Hiking Enthusiast.” Or maybe I should say I am after, “A Macro Lens that Can Do Everything.” Regardless of the title, the reader should understand that my motive for writing this article comes from a desire to get the most possible uses out of the least possible gear—and I have a bias toward macro photography. My needs and wants may not match your own, and that’s okay, but it’s important to understand my motives so you can adapt what I am saying your own preferences. That said, when I first started photography, I shot Canon, and I would hike for hours with only 1 camera and 1 lens: a 7D and 100mm macro, and I had a blast. I just worked with what I had.
After 10 years of nature photography, I now shoot Nikon, and I have found myself hiking with 2 cameras, a tripod [one long (heavy) bird lens slung over my shoulder on the tripod, with a high-end wide-angle lens holstered at my hip]. I also carry a shoulder pack with 3-5 other lenses contained within. My justification for carrying all this gear around is “so that I can photograph anything possible” when I hike.
Call me “slow,” but it has begun to dawn on me that I have actually created a condition where it is no longer fun to hike. Going out has become an arduous chore, where I am lugging 50-lb of gear with me, and I feel more like a pack animal—a beast of burden—than a photographer who is going out to enjoy nature 🙂
Without wanting to lose my options, I started contemplating how I could pair down—how I could discard the superfluous and just bring what is truly necessary. In mulling the issue over, I came to realize that I use some gear all the time … it is indispensable … while other gear I hardly use at all. I slowly came to terms with the fact Less is More when you’re hiking. Don’t get me wrong: I still want to be able to capture “anything I can,” but I want to be able to do so with less tools and thereby less weight. In essence, I wanted to figure out a way where I could capture any landscape image I wanted, far-way wildlife images too (birds/mammals), all the way down to being equipped for extreme macro (1:1 and beyond). And, just as importantly, I wanted to be able to get this kind of coverage with the fewest lenses possible. Thus it is from this perspective (and motive) I write.
In mulling over the available choices, I realized wide-angle (landscape) lenses are a dime-a-dozen. However, high-mag (meaning, beyond 1:1) macro lenses were very scarce. So I decided to investigate the well-known high-mag macro choices available to me first. Of all lens manufacturers on the planet, Nikon has the longest history of manufacturing lenses that are still available today … and by a country mile. With this knowledge, I then became acutely-aware of the few wide-angle Nikkor lenses that could reverse, and would therefore act as ‘super-macro’ lenses also. (Again, if the reader is unfamiliar with the principles behind reverse-macro photography, I strongly encourage you to read this article first, before proceeding any further).
Macro Super-Zoom History:
Before we proceed into the best Nikkor zoom lenses to reverse for macro field versatility, let us take a little walk back into high-mag, macro-zoom history in general. Let us also realize that 90% of most commercial ‘macro’ lenses only shoot at a 1:1 reproduction ratio (explained here). Realize that limiting macro shooters to a 1:1 reproduction ratio is a severe impediment to many macro-nature opportunities, where certain arthropods/subjects require much greater magnification. Therefore, over the years, some companies have taken the initiative to provide some exceptional high-mag macro lens alternatives for their customers:
High-Mag Macro Shooting (Beyond the ordinary):
Sometimes a macro-shooter needs to go beyond 1:1 magnification … requiring 2:1, or 3:1, and even beyond this extreme magnification, in order to capture the tiniest of organisms and such to-camera. For example, what if you wanted to photograph a tiny 9mm spider? Even if you bought the latest 1:1 macro lens, at its closest proximity your subject is only going to take up 25% of a 36mm frame (9mm = 25% of a full 36mm sensor). It is in situations like these where the macro shooter quickly realizes that even a true 1:1 macro lens is not enough.
Before Sony ever dabbled into cameras, its predecessor (Minolta) was the original pioneer in this effort. Expanding ‘beyond’ the traditional macro lens, Minolta introduced the Maxxum Dynax 3x-1x AF Macro Zoom, nearly 30 years ago (1990), and as such was ahead of its time. Even better, this exemplary lens was produced during an era where optimal product quality actually meant its description. Beautifully-presented in a full case, and other high-class accouterments, I feature this lens on my blog post out of my respect for its innovation as the original. That said, while the lens itself was of great quality for its time, optically as classy as its construction, as a field tool it is a little too stiff, and a little too inflexible, to seriously-consider taking on a hike. Not to mention, its considerable weight (1,100g) isn’t something you want to toss into your bag. For studio, however, it remains a superb choice! Since this blog article has to do with field macro gear, providing the ultimate flexibility, the Maxxum Dynax 3x-1x AF Macro Zoom lens actually earns last place as a result of these criteria (see below).
Approximately 9 years after Minolta came out with their great entry, Canon’s legendary MP-E 65mm f/2.8 Macro Photo lens was born, bridging the extreme macro gap even further than the Minolta, losing some of the former’s rigidity, and adding an even greater amount of macro magnification potential. Introduced nearly in 1999, to this day the MP-E 65mm f/2.8 Macro Photo remains, quite simply, the single-greatest tool for extreme macro image-making ever produced by any camera/lens company. The MP-E 65mm offers a range of between 1x and 5x lifesize magnification (1:1 to 5:1), all in one instrument. In fact, since switching from Canon to Nikon, I have noticed (and sympathized with) many Nikon users, who enjoy this kind of extreme macro image-making, who are often dismayed when they had to forgo this lens. I have heard, many times, Nikon users lament the fact they “have nothing to use” that is equivalent to the above-two lenses … but the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that is not true 🙂
The “Ah-ha!” Moment
(The MP-E is just a doctored zoom, reversed):
When I realized that Canon’s MP-E 65mm is really nothing but a zoom lens, reversed, doctored by Canon for macro use exclusively, I began to rub my chin and search-out some the finest-quality Nikkor AI-S zooms available to see how they might compare. I had personally used the MP-E 65mm for years, so I knew what I was trying to achieve. Since I had switched to Nikon, I had been shooting Nikkor primes, reversed, and I knew, quality-wise, the MP-E’s actual optics are no better than good Nikon glass. Third, and most important, for any other kind of shooting, the MP-E 65mm is useless. It can’t go to infinity; it can’t focus; it can’t shoot 1:4, or 1:2 (both very important macro ranges); the MP-E 65mm can only take extreme macro close-ups. For anything else it is no more useful than a paperweight. Now, if I was only into macro, that might be okay—but I like to photograph landscapes, reptiles, etc.—as well as my girlfriend and my dog—when I am enjoying nature hikes—and the MP-E 65mm renders any camera useless for this kind of shooting. Thus I was looking for the perfect Nikon zoom, for reversing purposes, to match what the MP-E 65mm can do, and yet to have none of the MP-E’s limitations. So here begins this inquiry:
The Best Nikkor Zooms
(To compare to the MP-E and Maxxum Dynax):
In order to assess these super-macro lenses, and compare them to Nikkor reverse-zooms, to see how they stack up against each other, I decided to create a table featuring all of the potential macro capabilities possible in a field lens. I want you to picture hiking in the wilderness, with ONE lens (that you hope can do anything), to understand the perspective from which I write. Again, this is written with a decided bias for macro shooting, but it is also written with the realization that taking landscape shots on your hike is important, taking photos of your wife (or girlfriend, or dog, or both) is important, etc. In other words, there are a multitude of different requirements that you might want your lens to be able to perform whilst ‘out in the middle of nowhere,’ and the takeaway is the ability to have one lens ‘do everything’ is a preferable model to dragging 10 lenses with you for miles. It’s not just the hassle of the extra weight that many lenses entails, it’s also the hassle involved in repeatedly-changing lenses. With that said, let’s see how these lenses truly stack-up against each other for real-world macro (and other) utility:
FIELD MACRO COMPARISON
|LENS SELECTION||INFINITY||@1:4||@1:2||@1:1||@2:1||@3:1||@4:1||@5:1||IMAGE QUALITY||USED PRICE|
|Minolta Maxxum Dynax|
|Can't||Can't||Can't||40mm||???, but yes||25mm||Can't||Can't||**** (4/5)||$1,500|
|Canon MP-E 65mm|
|Venus Laowa 60mm f/2.8|
3rd Best Total Package
|Yes||???, but yes||???, but yes||60mm||50mm||Can't||Can't||Can't||**** (4/5)||$250|
|Nikon Series E 36-72mm||Yes||184mm (reversed only)||70mm (reversed only)||114mm||64mm|
|Nikkor 35-70mm AI-S|
2nd Best Total Package (Tied)
|Yes||350mm||70mm (reversed only)||139mm||63mm|
|Nikkor 28-50mm AI-S|
2nd Best Total Package
|Nikkor 28-85mm AI-S|
BEST TOTAL PACKAGE
|Nikkor 25-50mm AI-S||Yes||Can't||Can't||Can't (1.6x)||38mm||29mm||21mm|
As you can see, the Nikkor zooms offer advantages none of the other high-mag super-macro lenses offer (except the recent Laowa): and that is the ability to go infinity as well as other needed macro reproduction ratios (namely 1:4 to 1:2 to 1:1). However, while offering the aforementioned advantages, the first 2 Nikkor zooms (36-72mm and 35-70mm) are pretty impotent as ‘super’ macros, only achieving 1.8 and 2.1x magnification, respectively. They can basically do anything the Laowa can do, but they fall pretty far short of the magnification capabilities of the Maxxum Dynax—and especially the MP-E 65mm. These lenses do, however, allow you to take ‘normal’ macro images (less than 1:1), which is important, because many macro subjects (mantids, grasshoppers, butterflies, flowers) are too big for 1:1+ lenses. In addition, the first two Nikon lenses also allow you to get much wider shots than the Laowa (35/36mm), properly-oriented.
However, the last 3 Nikkor zooms, and particularly the last two (the 28-85mm and the 25-50mm), really do begin to get into ‘super-macro’ territory … which I consider to be 3x magnification and beyond. They essentially blow the Laowa out of the water, on every level, and match the Maxxum Dynax as ‘super macro’ lenses, while being infinitely more flexible. I myself very seldom shoot beyond 3x in the field, so this is a good cutoff magnification for me. Even when I had the MP-E, I seldom went passed 3x magnification. (It should be pointed out that the image quality of the MP-E begins to drop passed 3x magnification as well.) Anyway, as important, the last 3 Nikkor zooms also allow you to take respectable wide-angle shots (25 and 28mm), as well as portraits too (50-85mm), in addition to allowing you to achieve the important macro magnifications the Maxxum Dynax and MP-E cannot achieve: namely 1:4, 1:2, and 1:1. These AI-S Zoom-Nikkors offer a level of flexibility than none of the ‘super macros’ can touch. Moving forward, armed with the knowledge of the advantages offered by the Nikkor zooms, let’s directly compare their strengths/weaknesses with each other:
NIKKOR AI-S FIELD ZOOM REVERSE-LENS MACRO COMPARISON
|MODEL||REVERSE MAG. RANGE||REPRO @ CLOSEST-FOC DIST.|
|FILTER SIZE||WEIGHT||REVERSE RING(s) NEEDED|
|36-72mm Nikon Series E|
|0.1x to 1.8x lifesize||1:18 @ 1.2m (47 in)||f/8 to f/11||52mm||380g||BR-2A|
|35-70mm Zoom-Nikkor AI-S|
|0.17x to 2.1x lifesize||1:4 @ 0.35m (14 in)||f/8||62mm||520g||BR-2A + BR-5
(62 - 52)
|28-50mm Zoom-Nikkor AI-S|
|1.2x to 2.4x lifesize||1:4 @ 0.23m (9.1 in)||f/8||52mm||395g||BR-2A|
|28-85mm Zoom-Nikkor AI-S|
|.029x to 2.9x lifesize||1:3.4 @ 0.23m (9.1 in)||f/8 to f/11||62mm||510g||BR-2A + BR-5
(62 - 52)
|25-50mm Zoom-Nikkor AI-S|
|1.6x to 3.4x lifesize||1:10 @ 0.6m (24 in)||f/8||72mm||600g||BR-2A + SenseiPRO
(72 - 52)
The above table compares Nikon’s useful options against each other. Again, the Zoom-Nikkor 28-85mm f/3.5 AI-S kills it, with the overall widest normal-zoom range (28mm to 85mm), and the broadest macro magnification range (0.029x to 2.9x magnification). Properly-oriented, this lens allows the closest proximity 0.23m (9.1 in … tied with the 28-50mm f/3.5 AI-S), and the greatest macro reproduction ratio without being reversed (1:3.4). In the reversed position, as a ‘super macro,’ only the 25-50 achieves a greater reproduction ratio, at 3.4x, but the 25-50 is so limited (no 1:4, 1:2, or 1:1), that it doesn’t have the flexibility to win this contest. It does, however, have the best image quality of any lens in the group. With that said, let’s wrap things up with a hands-on summary.
Field Macro Usefulness Summary
With the above criteria established for the most versatile, field-useful macro lens, I will now move beyond “charts and tables,” and give my hands-on pros/cons summary on the advantages/disadvantages of actually using these tools in the field. Remember, my conclusions are somewhat subjective, they’re not absolute, and what may be useful for me might be useless for you. But at least my perspective is coming from a guy who actually uses these tools, rather than (as many ‘articles’ do) coming from a guy who never shoots macro. The truth is, all of these lenses are capable in their own way. Some are more specialized than others, some more general. I have personally used 6 out of the 8 offerings, extensively, and I have read enough reviews about the other two (Maxxum Dynax/Laowa) to provide reasonably-accurate commentary. With that said, let us now get to the bottom line as to what it’s like to actually use these lenses:
Minolta Maxxum Dynax 3x-1x AF Macro Zoom:
Pros: The classiest lens of the group. Collector’s item of exquisite craftsmanship not seen today anymore. Comes with its own carrying case (lock/key), plus additional accouterments. Excellent image quality; built-in tripod collar for precise compositions, backed with precision-engineered components.
Cons: Huge @ 1,100g. Rigid, heavy, doesn’t fit into a lens pouch. Very limited in application: made more for the studio, not for field use. Tiny working distances. Useless for anything but macro. No infinity, no 1:4, no 1:2. (1:1 – 3:1 only.) Expensive.
Image Quality Rating: B+/A-
Field Versatility Rating: F
(Find on Ebay)
Canon MP-E 65mm f/2.8 1-5x Macro Photo:
Pros: The single best tool for macro photography between 1-5x magnification of the group. Very sturdy field build. Tripod collar enables perfect compositions. Seamless transition from 1:1 all the way to 5:1. Produces excellent image quality from 1:1 to 3:1. Good high-mag working distances compared to most.
Cons: Hefty @ 720g. Large with awkward shape doesn’t allow it to fit in lens pouch (unless you remove the tripod collar, one of its key features). Image quality begins to deteriorate at greater than 3:1. Useless for anything but macro. No infinity, no 1:4, no 1:2. (1:1 – 5:1 magnification only.) Expensive.
Image Quality Rating: A/B-, depending on magnification
Field Versatility Rating: C overall (A+ for macro, F- for everything else)
(Find on Ebay)
Venus Laowa 60mm f/2.8 2x Ultra-Macro (see, also, Oshiro 60mm f/2.8 Super Macro):
Pros: Fairly-new entry into the genre … first ‘super macro’ zoom to include infinity focus. Very sharp image quality. 14 aperture blades create nice bokeh. Very convenient in that it is able to provide a seamless transition from infinity, down to 1:4, to 1:2, and then in as close as 1:1 to 1:2, with no reversing needed. Sturdy construction. 60mm focal length allows portraiture and some landscapes without changing lenses.
(The Oshiro is just a spinoff of the Venus Laowa.)
Cons: Slightly hefty @ 503g. Construction, while sturdy, is crude and unrefined, unbefitting of high-end cameras. Also allows dust intrusion. More distortion than most macros, esp. on full frame. Tiny working distances (compared to others). Doesn’t go very wide @ 60mm. Cannot achieve 3:1, 4:1, or 5:1 magnification.
Image Quality Rating: B+
Field Versatility Rating: B
(Find on Ebay)
Nikon Series E 36-72mm f/3.5 Zoom Lens:
Pros: The lightest lens of the group@ 380g. Comparable to the Laowa 60mm in quality and macro range, but more versatile as a portrait/landscape lens, while offering greater working distance as a macro, when reversed. The least expensive lens of the group.
Cons: Construction is light, plasticky, and cheap-feeling. Zero macro usefulness when properly-oriented; lens must be reversed to work as a macro. Requires BR-2A adapter to reverse. Doesn’t quite get to 2:1 magnification (1.8x). Cannot achieve 3:1, 4:1, or 5:1 magnification.
Image Quality Rating: B-
Field Versatility Rating: B-/B
(Find on Ebay)
Zoom-Nikkor 35-70mm f/3.5 AI-S:
Pros: Solid, and more refined build quality than the Laowa 60mm and Series E. More versatile as well. Greater working distance also. Unlike the Series E, the Zoom-Nikkor 35-70 has a 1:4 “Macro Mode,” which allows 1:4 magnification, when properly-oriented, and it exceeds 2:1, when reversed. Similar design to 28-85 AI-S, below.
Cons: Slightly hefty @ 520g. Rather long and cumbersome. Zoom/aperture/focus rings not intuitive when reversed. Lens must be reversed for macro between 1:4 and 2:1. Requires BR-2A adapter, plus additional BR-5, to reverse. Cannot achieve 3:1, 4:1, or 5:1 magnification.
Image Quality Rating: B/B+
Field Versatility Rating: B
(Find on Ebay)
Zoom-Nikkor 28-50mm f/3.5 AI-S:
Pros: Tied for the lightest, most user-friendly option of the group @ 395g. Push-pull zoom function is completely intuitive, whether reversed or properly-oriented. An absolute delight to bring as your only lens. Fits easily into any pouch. Similar design to the 36-72mm Series E lens, above, but far more useful, allowing wider landscapes as well as 1:4 magnification, when properly-oriented, and achieving 2.4x magnification, when reversed. Bests the Laowa, the Series E, and the 35-70 AI-S in virtually every respect. Good AI-S build quality. Good working distances.
Cons: Almost none. Lens must be reversed for macro between 1:4 and 2.4x. Requires BR-2A adapter to reverse. Does have a hole in macro spectrum, between 1:4 and 1:1 (cannot achieve 1:2). Cannot achieve 3:1, 4:1, or 5:1 magnification.
Image Quality Rating: B/B+
Field Versatility Rating: B+
(Find on Ebay)
Zoom-Nikkor 28-85mm f/3.5~4.5 AI-S:
Pros: The most versatile, flexible option of the group. Fits easily into any pouch. Similar design to the 35-70mm AI-S, above, but even more useful, allowing wider landscapes, and closer zooms, when properly-oriented—and achieving 2.9x magnification, when reversed. Only one of two lenses on par with the Minolta Maxxum Dynax, magnification-wise, yet the Zoom-Nikkor 28-85mm is a FAR more versatile tool overall. Good AI-S build quality. Good working distances. Inexpensive.
Cons: Minimal. Slightly hefty @ 510g. A bit long and cumbersome. Zoom/aperture/focus rings not intuitive when reversed. Lens must be reversed for macro between 1:4 and 3:1. Requires BR-2A adapter, plus additional BR-5, to reverse. Cannot achieve beyond 3:1 (2.9x) magnification.
Image Quality Rating: B/B+
Field Versatility Rating: A (*WINNER*: The most versatile, capable option).
(Find on Ebay)
Zoom-Nikkor 25-50mm f/4 AI-S:
Pros: The highest-quality optic of the group. In a class by itself. Allows wider landscapes than any lens, when properly-oriented, and is second only to the MP-E 65mm as a macro lens, achieving 3.4x magnification, when reversed. Fits easily into any pouch. Excellent, professional build quality, superior to every other lens here, save the Maxxum Dynax.
Cons: MULTIPLE. Pretty hefty @ 600g. A bit long and cumbersome. Zoom/aperture/focus rings not intuitive when reversed. Useless for macro when properly-oriented. No way to achieve 1:4, 1:2, or 1:1 macro capability, either properly-oriented or reversed. Lens must be reversed for macro between 1.6x and 3.4x. Requires BR-2A adapter, plus additional SenseiPRO 72 – 52 adapter, to reverse. Less working distances when reversed compared to other Nikkors. Cannot achieve beyond 4:1 (3.4x) magnification.
Image Quality Rating: A (*WINNER*: The best image quality of the group).
Field Versatility Rating: C-/C
(Find on Ebay)
Many people consider the Canon MP-E 65mm f/2.8 1-5x Macro Photo to be ‘the ultimate field macro lens,’ and in some respects it is. However, it is also very limited (even useless) in many other important respects. This article was intended to shed some light on some of the other options available, particularly for non-Canon (Nikon) shooters, but even Canon shooters can adapt the Nikkor lenses discussed to fit their cameras. At this point, I guess the question becomes, “What should you do with this information?” , and the answer is, “That’s up to you.” The takeaway here is all of these lenses are worthy acquisitions in their own way. Each offers certain advantages; each has certain liabilities. There is no 100% perfect ‘silver bullet’ lens which can do everything. However, IMO, the Nikkor 28-85 f/3.5~4.0 AI-S comes the closest, as the criteria clearly demonstrate. That said here is how I personally use what this inquiry has taught me:
What I Use and Why
Because I don’t always have the same objectives when I go on a nature hike, what I bring will often vary. However, I typically have 3 possible motives when I go out, so I will discuss each of these in turn:
- If I want a ‘hands-free hike,’ where I am carrying a lot of non-photography gear (reptile tongs, insect sweep nets, shovels, etc.), trying to excavate critters for a later photo shoot … and don’t want to carry anything but ONE lightweight lens … then I use the Zoom-Nikkor 28-50 f/3.5 AI-S, holstered in a Cotton Carrier. It’s compact size, versatility, and total user-friendliness, make it my favorite single field lens to use. It does have one weakness (no 1:2), but I can crop a bit to get there … and it is so nice to use that its ‘field friendliness’ trumps its minor limitation. The fact that it can be flipped with ease, and reversed, to achieve up to 2.4x magnification, is all I really need. Also, when properly-oriented, its 1:4 reproduction ratio is at the 50mm end of its 28-50mm zoom range, which is ideal for lizards and large butterflies. The 28-50mm AI-S is also my main lens I use as a casualty investigator, as this zoom range is ideal for photographing people and accident scenes, where (again) its light weight and compact size are most welcome.
However, if I am on a general arthropod/reptile macro hike, and am carrying no other gear at all, then I will use the overall winner of this contest: the Zoom-Nikkor 28-85mm f/3.5~4.5 AI-S, on a tripod, and I will likely bring a diffused flash.
- However, if I want to capture “all things possible” on a major hike … and am carrying nothing but photography gear … then I bring my 300mm bird lens on one camera (D500), and place my ‘catch-all, do everything’ lens on the other (D810/D850). That means, I use the overall winner of this contest: the Zoom-Nikkor 28-85mm f/3.5~4.5 AI-S, holstered in a Cotton Carrier, while I sling my bird lens over my shoulder on my tripod. I keep my 28-85mm in the reversed position almost exclusively, with a diffused flash, unless I flip it for a landscape shot. When properly-oriented, its 1:4 reproduction ratio is at the 28mm end of its 28-85mm zoom range, which offers a wider, unique perspective.
- On the other hand, if I embark on a 100% Macro-Dedicated Day, and only want to shoot the best possible macro imagery I can, quality-wise, then I bring two cameras and two lenses: the 1) Voigtländer SL 125mm f/2.5 Apo-Lanthar Macro on my D810, affixed to a tripod, and 2) the Zoom-Nikkor 25-50mm f/4 AI-S, reversed, affixed to my D850, holstered in my Cotton Carrier. The reason why I use my D850 for ‘super-macro’ is because its live view is far superior to the D810. This combo allows me to capture “anything macro,” from infinity to ~telephoto 1:1 (125mm), at a great working distance, and (if I need to go ‘extreme macro’) I have a 1.6x to 3.4x magnification range, in the finest possible way the images can be captured (IMHO), via the 25-50mm AI-S. I will also use a diffused flash when deploying the 25-50mm, when needed.
Well, that’s it folks. In closing, I hope you have taken the time to actually read the material, the tables, and the pros/cons. (Skimming over an in-depth article, not absorbing anything, doesn’t do anyone any good.) The really cool thing about old-school Nikkor lenses (esp. reversed) is, not only are they extremely versatile, but they can fit on virtually any camera system.
That said, if you have any issues (or if you see any errors or omissions), I welcome your feedback. Again, this article is written by someone who actually does a ton of macro fieldwork, as opposed to someone who ‘tested some lenses,’ but who doesn’t actually shoot macro 😀
Thanks for reading,
PS: I will be making periodic updates to this post, and will announce them here. If you’d like to receive the updates announcements, Register for the blog and subscribe to the post.
LAST UPDATED: 11/27/17